Instructors: Dr. Arpita Maitra and Prof. Rana Barua

Course Objective:

The primary objective of this course is to enable the students, irrespective of their disciplines, in developing the most appropriate methodology for their research studies; and to make them familiar with the art of exploiting different research methods and techniques. The participants of the course should obtain a guideline on how to write, publish, present, and review scientific papers. The course aims to guide the students regarding the publication ethics and misconducts. It is expected that the course will assist in the accomplishment of exploratory as well as result-oriented research studies.



  • Fundamentals of Research:
    Basics: Definition, Purpose and Classification of research, Fundamentals of research methods, Writing a research proposal;
    Problem Identification: Review of literature, Broadening knowledge base in the specific research area, Bringing clarity and focus to the research problem, Writing a research proposal, Writing research reports/papers;
    Identifying variables: The difference between a concept and a variable, Converting concepts into variables, Types of variable, Types of measurement scale.

  • Research Design:
    Selecting a study design: Differences between quantitative and qualitative study designs, Study designs in quantitative research,
    Data collection: Selecting a method of data collection, Differences in the methods of data collection in quantitative and qualitative research, Major approaches to information gathering, Methods of data collection in qualitative research.

  • Fundamentals of Statistics: Frequency, Measure of Central Tendency, Dispersion, Regression and Interpretation of Results.

  • Basics of Probability: Definition of Probability, Conditional Probability, Bayes’ Random Variable, Probability Distribution.

  • Optimization Techniques: Maxima & Minima, Condition of Optimality, Linear Programming Problem (Introduction, Formation of LPP, Graphical method of solution).

  • Research Ethics:
    Philosophy & Ethics: Introduction to Philosophy, definition, nature and scope, concepts, branches, nature of moral philosophy, nature of moral judgements and reactions, Ethics with respect to science and research, Intellectual honesty and research integrity;
    Scientific misconducts: Falsification, Fabrication, and Plagiarism, Redundant publications; duplicate and overlapping publications, Selective reporting and misrepresentation of data, Conflict of interest;
    Publication misconduct: parallel submission, authorship and contributorship, Ethical issues regarding the sponsoring organisation, Restrictions imposed by the sponsoring organisation, The misuse of information.

  • Practical Session: Application of software; Latex, Beamer, Presentation towards communication skill for professional development, Audience analysis and persuasion techniques, Use of plagiarism detection software like Turnitin, Urkund and other open source software tools.



[1] Research Methodology Methods & Techniques, C. R. Kothari, New Age International (P) Limited, Publisher, 2004.

[2] Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners (Fourth Edition), Ranjit Kumar, SAGE publishing, 2015.

[3] Fundamental of Research Methodology and Statistics, Y.K. Singh, New Age International (P) Limited, 2006.

[4] Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach, Sherri L Jackson, American Psychological Association, 5th edition, Cengage Learning, 2014.

[5] Research Ethics for Scientists: A Companion for Students, C. Neal Stewart Jr., Wiley Publishing, 2011.

[6] The student’s guide to research ethics, Paul Oliver, Open University Press, McGraw-Hill Education, McGraw-Hill House, second edition, 2010.

Slides / Board-works / Notes:


    • Class 1: Fundamentals of Research. [Slide 1]

    • Class 2 and 3: Roles and Responsibilities of Students and Supervisors. [Slide 2]

    • Class 4: Time and Effort Management [Slide 3]

    • Class 5: Basics of Probability – I [Boardwork]

    • Class 6: Concepts and Variable [Slide 4]

    • Class 7: Basics of Probability – II [Boardwork]

    • Class 8: Basics of Probability – III [Boardwork]

    • Class 9: Types of Variables and Literature Review [Slide 5]

    • Class 10: Basics of Probability – IV [Boardwork]

    • Class 11 and 12: Effective Use of Literature and Research Design [Slide 6]

    • Class 13: Fundamentals of Statistics – I [Boardwork]

    • Class 14: Fundamentals of Statistics – II [Boardwork]

    • Class 15: Optimization Problems [Boardwork]

    • Class 16: Research Ethics [Slide 7]

    • Class 17: Linear Programming [Boardwork]